The American Silver Dollar

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When you think of or hear the word 'dollar', many of us automatically think about a paper dollar bill. After all, the US dollar bill is what we use today for our money. However, the first US dollars that were used back in the 1700s were silver dollars. The American Silver Dollar is not only a unique collector's piece but is also a big part of our history.

History of the American Silver Dollar

The first issue of US dollars took place in 1794 in the form of the American Silver Dollar. Their style was based on the Spanish dollars that were then being used. Throughout the years, the design of the silver dollar has changed quite frequently, usually representing something symbolic to the country, whether it's Lady Liberty, our Presidents or something symbolizing our freedom and unity as a nation.

The first American Silver Dollar displayed the head of Lady Liberty facing right with her long flowing hair. LIBERTY is inscribed on the top edge in a circular style above her head. The date is on the bottom of the coin. Eight stars are one the left side of Lady with seven on the right. The reverse side of the coin features an eagle surrounded by a wreath with the words UNITED STATES OF AMERICA all around the coin. The edge of the coin has the lettered denomination (ONE DOLLAR or HUNDRED CENTS, etc.) Robert Scot was the designer of this coin, which was made with a 90% Silver / 10% copper combination. All coins of this date were made at the Philadelphia Mint; therefore, there is no mint mark on them. This design continued to be used on the American Silver Dollar until 1798 when they changed the style to a heraldic eagle on the reverse. This famous dollar has seen many design changes through the years.

• 1794 – Liberty Head on Front / Eagle in Wreath on reverse
• 1798 – Liberty Head on Front / Heraldic Eagle on reverse
• 1836 – Liberty Seated on Front / Flying Eagle on reverse
• 1840 – Liberty Seated on Front / Flying Eagle on reverse
• 1873 – Trade Dollars
• 1878 – Liberty Head on Front / Eagle on reverse (Morgan Dollars)
• 1921 – Peace Dollars
1971 – Eisenhower Dollars
• 1979 – Susan B. Anthony Dolls

Mintmarks & Changes on the American Silver Dollar

The many changes in the silver dollar were welcome changes to the public because they represent something memorable in the country. An example of this was seen in the Peace Dollars, which were made to celebrate the end of World War I. The Eisenhower Dollars were designed as a way to pay tribute to the Presidents. Coins that were mined stuck in Philadelphia did not display a mintmark but the silver dollars that were snapped at New Orleans (O), Denver (D), Carson City (CC) or San Francisco (S) displayed the initials.

Although the American Silver Dollar has always played a vital part in the history of our country, the ones that have been the most popular and most sought after are the Peace Dollars and the Morgan Dollars.

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The United States Silver Dollar Coin

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On and off since the late seventeen-hundreds, the United States has produced a wide variety of dollar coins. Made of various metals at different points, including gold, silver, copper and nickel, they have been a popular denomination with both the general public and coin collectors alike. Without a doubt the most popular US dollar coin is the silver dollar. For generations the silver dollar has held the interest of not only coin enthusiasts, but also those who invest in precious metals.

Generally speaking, silver dollars are made up of approximately 90% silver with an additional amount of copper added to give the coin added durability. As there was a short period of time when the content of silver in the coins was increased by a small amount in order to compete with foreign coins that had higher silver content. These coins were not generally considered to be circulating coins within the United States, and came to be known as Trade Dollars. During times of a shortage of the raw silver that was need to produce the coins, the amount of copper nickel used was increased to as much as 60% of the total content.

Silver dollars have been mined at six facilities including the mints in West Point, New York (W), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, (P), New Orleans, Louisiana (O), Carson City, Nevada (CC), San Francisco, California S) and Denver, Colorado (D).

In the history of United States coinage, it is interesting to note that silver was in many ways as valuable as gold, and was just as difficult to come by. This is the reason that you will find that the production numbers were quite limited due to the difficulty in obtaining silver. When the value of silver had risen to a point that it made the production of silver dollars financially impractical, a halt was placed on the production of the coins. This was the case between the years of 1804 up until 1836.

Production did not resume in full until the discovery in Nevada of the Comstock Lode in 1850. The finding of such a large deposit of silver hastened the production of silver coins within the United States. Sometimes, even the massive deposits found in Nevada began to dwindle, causing another slow down in production until 1904. The silver melt of 1918 once again increased the availability of the raw materials needed, although even this was something temporary in nature, as silver shortages seemed to come and go as the years went on.

The United States Mint began producing the American Silver Eagle coin in 1986, a coin that is 100% pure silver weighing at one full troy ounce. Unlike previous silver dollars the silver eagle was not intended to be a circulating coin as the silver contents are valued at least nearly five times the coin's face value, depending on market conditions. Many of today's investors tend to purchase silver eagles as a hedge against the falling dollar value.

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Bariatric Surgery Can Lead To More Normal Life

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For those who are strictly overweight, bariatric surgery can be a chance to lead a more normal life. There are many reasons why individuals end up becoming obese. It can be due to a glandular problem, due to genetics, or due to caloric intake. Whatever the reason, dropping a great number of pounds can be extremely difficult. Losing weight is tied to many triggers, emotional and physical. Losing and regaining weight is called yo-yo dieting and is a common phenomenon for these individuals. When the scale goes up and down during this yo-yo cycle, it can be damaging to the dieter's health as well as to his or her self esteem. Surgical interventions can change this pattern.

The Operation

Bariatric surgery is performed to change the stomach's capacity to hold food as well as to alter the absorption of calories. Typically, a stomach can hold several cups of food at one time. After a weight loss operation, it will only be able to contain one cup of food at a time. Techniques are also performed to change the way calories are absorbed through the intestinal tract. A surgeon will either remove a portion of the stomach and suture or staple it shut or use a band to compress it. The surgery can be performed via the open method or by using the laparoscopic technique. The open method entails an incision that is between eight and ten inches long. The laparoscopic technique uses a slender lit tool inserted through tiny openings, which translates into a less invasive procedure. Both methods are performed in a hospital or clinical setting under general anesthesia.

After the Procedure

After bariatric surgery, patients need to stay in the hospital for a few days. They will not be able to eat much in the early recovery period and will need to stick to specific types of foods. Initially, puddings, oatmeal, and clear soups will be on the menu but within three months, regular foods will be acceptable. Rapid weight loss occurs at a pound each day or more. Patients may end up with loose skin and may opt for a tummy tuck or circumferential lift to tighten everything up. Self-esteem often increases as the pounds drop off. The two are linked and go hand-in-hand.

If you are considering having bariatric surgery to get rid of your obesity, it would be wise to schedule an appointment with a surgeon for a consultation. Patients need to have a BMI of 40 or more to be considered as ideal candidates. If you think this is the solution for your problems, a surgeon who specializes in this operation will give you all the answers you are seeking.

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Cost Vs Value When Booking a Vacation

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When it comes to saving money on a trip – when is the value of using a travel agent worth paying a little more than the price you find online?

Unlike booking online, when you book with a travel agent, you are getting much more service than you will with an online agency. Our job does not end when we deliver your tickets to you – it continues with our assistance while you are traveling and when you get home. How you may ask?

Here are a few examples of actual client travel problems that the value of using a travel agent outweighed booking by themselves.

We booked a family on a vacation package to Cabo. They had connecting flights and called us because their first flight leaving was delayed by several hours, causing them to miss their connecting flight.They called us from the airport because they were concerned that the company that their transfers were through would not be at the airport to pick them up. We contacted the supplier who changed the flight times and made sure the transfer company had the new information.

Clients from Georgia were supposedly to fly Feb. 13, 2010 to San Juan for a cruise leaving at 10 PM on Feb. 14. At 8 AM on Feb. 13 they called us in a panic. It was snowing, their flights were taken and the airline told the clients that they would not be able to fly them out until Monday.

Thankfully they could drive to Florida and we found flights on another airline Feb.. 14 that would get them to the cruise ship with plenty of time to spare. We warned them San Juan hotel, found a hotel in Orlando for her that would allow them to park their car for free for the duration of the cruise and shuttle her back and forth to the airport. Our client said if she had booked this on her own, she would not have known what to do and would have been heartbroken at not being able to travel. Since she had also purchased travel insurance, we started a travel delay claim for her to be reimbursed for the difference in the flight prices, plus her expenses for gas, tolls and meals to get back and forth to the Orlando airport. The forms were waiting for her when she came back from her cruise.

A few years ago, we had clients who had booked a trip and cancelled their trip a month before the date they were to leave for a reason that was not covered by travel insurance. The supplier was adamant that the cancellation was non-refundable. We intervened and were able to obtain a partial credit to book another trip within one year so the client did not lose all their money.

Today a client sent us a price quote for a vacation to Punta Cana asking if we could beat the price. She priced the vacation with connecting flights from Philadelphia and on her return, she chose a flight that left Punta Cana at 7 AM. We asked her if she realized that to make that return flight home she would have to be at the airport by 4:30 AM to ensure she would have enough time to get through Security. She had no idea she would have to be at the airport that early. Not only did we beat the price, we found her direct flights for less than she was quoted through the online agency and her return flight left at 1:05 PM.

What other value do we provide when you book with us that you will not get from booking online? We send you destination information, advise you of the documentation you need to travel, give information on optional excursions, send you helpful hints and last minute reminders and we are available 24 hours if you have a problem while you are traveling as evidenced above. We follow up with you when you return and if there was a problem that needs to be addressed with a supplier, we will get involved to try and find a satisfactory resolution.

Is this kind of service worth paying a little extra for?

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