Louisiana's Cancer Alley

Due to its abundance to the Gulf of Mexico and the oil rigs located there, Louisiana has become a hotspot for industrial petrochemical companies such as Royal Dutch / Shell Group, Dow Chemical, and others. While these chemical plants are responsible for creating the building blocks of many products that we use every day, some Louisiana residents believe that pollution from these plants has contributed to the state's high cancer rate, nicknaming it "Cancer Alley."

There is an 85-mile stretch of the Mississippi River from Baton Rouge to New Orleans. This is a strategic location for chemical plants-close to two large cities as well as next to a major source of transportation. Thus, it is no wonder that over 130 industrial plants have sprouted in this area, right next to many small, low-income neighborhoods.

However, neighbors in this area soon began to experience higher rates of cancer than normal, which led them to nickname this stretch of development "cancer alley." In fact, in 2002, Louisiana had the second-highest death rate from cancer in the United States.

Incidentally, in a 2000 Toxic Release Inventory report performed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the government found that Louisiana also ranked second in the US for total onsite releases of chemicals and pollutants. Additionally, the state was fourth for combined onsite and offsite releases. A staggering seven out of the ten top on- and offsite chemical releasing plants in Louisiana are located in cancer alley. Four out of the top ten onsite polluters are in cancer alley.

Besides regular pollutants, these chemical plants have also been known to have spills, such as Condea Vista. This corporation's plant admitted to 90 spills in a single year, and it was penalized for releasing 19 to 47 million pounds of ethylene dichloride into the environment. Frighteningly, this chemical may be a human carcinogen, possibly giving credibility to the residents' claims of living in cancer alley.

Sadly, when you live near a chemical plant, chemical pollutants are not the only dangers you face. In many older plants, asbestos was used as an insulation to protect against heat, flame, electricity, and chemicals. As the plants age, they can release microscopic asbestos fibers into the air, where they can be inhaled or ingested. Asbestos is a known human carcinogen that can cause problems such as mesothelioma and lung cancer.

If you have lived or worked in an area that contained many chemical plants, you should talk to your doctor today about cancer testing.

Haitian Vodoun Perspectives on Death and Dying

I chose to explore the culture of Haitians who practice Vodou, a religion also known as Voodoo, Vodun, Vodoun, Voudun, and Yoruba Orisha.  I have just returned from a vacation in the Caribbean (Punta Cana, Dominican Republic), which shares an island with Haiti. While there, I met a man from Haiti and was reminded of a bizarre experience I had in 1998 when I was ridden by an orisha (loa) during an inner-city Christian church service.
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Thus, I thought this would make an interesting subject for this assignment. To make things simpler in this essay, I will refer to this group simply as Vodou or Vodoun.

Introducing Vodou and Haitian Culture

Vodou is a Caribbean religion blended from African religions and Catholic Christianity. Long stereotyped by the outside world as “black magic,” Vodoun priests and priestesses are also diviners, healers, and religious leaders, who derive most of their income from healing the sick rather than from attacking targeted victims.

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Vodou comes from an African word for “spirit” and can be directly traced to the West African Yoruba people who lived in 18th and 19th century Dahomey. However, its African roots may go back 6,000 years. Today, Vodou is practiced most commonly in the country of Haiti and in the United States around New Orleans, New York, and in Florida. Today over 60 million people practice Vodou throughout the Caribbean and West Indies islands, as well as in North and South America, Africa, and Britain.

During days of slave trade, this religion fused with Catholic Christianity.
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Therefore, in this current century, children born into rural Haitian families are generally baptized into the Vodou religion as well as in the Catholic church.

Those who practice Vodou believe in a pantheon of gods who control and represent the laws and forces of the universe. In this pantheon, there is a Supreme Deity and the Loa-a large group of lesser deities equivalent to the saints of the Catholic Church. These gods protect people and give special favors through their representatives on earth which are the hougans (priests) and mambos (priestesses).

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The Loa (also Lwa or L’wha) are spirits somewhat like saints or angels in Christianity. They are intermediaries between the Creator and humanity. Unlike saints or angels, they are not simply prayed to; they are served. They are each distinct beings with their own personal likes and dislikes, distinct sacred rhythms, songs, dances, ritual symbols, and special modes of service.

Rituals, Behaviors, and Practices Associated with Death and Dying

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Haitians who adhere to Vodou do not consider death to be the end of life. They do believe in an afterlife. Followers of Vodoun believe that each person has a soul that has both a gros bon ange (large soul or universal life force), and a ti bon ange (little soul or the individual soul or essence.)

When one dies, the soul essence hovers near the corpse for seven to nine days. During this period, the ti bon ange is vulnerable and can be captured and made into a “spiritual zombie” by a sorcerer.
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Provided the soul is not captured, the priest or priestess performs a ritual called Nine Night to sever the soul from the body so the soul may live in the dark waters for a year and a day. If this is not done, the ti bon ange may wander the earth and bring misfortune on others.

After a year and a day, relatives of the deceased perform the Rite of Reclamation to raise the deceased person’s soul essence and put it in a clay jar known as a govi.
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The belief that each person’s life experiences can be passed on to the family or community compels Haitians to implore the spirit of the decease to temporarily possess a family member, priest (houngan), or priestess (mambo) to impart any final words of wisdom.

The clay jar may be placed in the houngan’s or mambo’s temple where the family may come to feed the spirit and treat it like a divine being.  At other times, the houngan burns the jar in a ritual called boule zen.
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This releases the spirit to the land of the dead, where it should properly reside. Another way to elevate the ti-bon-ange is to break the jar and drop the pieces at a crossroad.

The ultimate purpose of death rituals in the Vodoun culture is to send the gros-bon-ange to Ginen, the cosmic community of ancestral spirits, where it will be worshipped by family members as a loa itself.

Once the final ritual is done, the spirit is free to abide among the rocks and trees until rebirth. Sixteen incarnations later, spirits merge into the cosmic energy.

Here are some other common behaviors associated with death in the Haitian culture:

·        When death is impending, the entire family will gather, pray, cry, and use religious medallions or other spiritual artifacts. Relatives and friends expend considerable effort to be present when death is near.

·        Haitians prefer to die at home, but the hospital is also an acceptable choice.

·        The moment of death is marked by ritual wailing among family members, friends, and neighbors.

·        When a person dies, the oldest family member makes all the arrangements and notifies the family. The body is kept until the entire family can gather.

·        The last bath is usually given by a family member.

·        Funerals are important social events and involve several days of social interaction, including feasting and the consumption of rum.

·        Family members come from far away to sleep at the house, and friends and neighbors congregate in the yard.

·        Burial monuments and other mortuary rituals are often costly and elaborate. People are increasingly reluctant to be buried underground. They prefer to be interred above ground in an elaborate multi-chambered tomb that may cost more than the house in which the individual lived while alive.

·        Since the body is thought to be necessary for resurrection, organ donation and cremation are not allowed. Autopsy is allowed only if the death occurred as a result of wrong doing or to confirm that the body is actually dead and not a zombie.

Like many Western Christian religions that use a figurative sacrifice to symbolize the consumption of flesh and blood, some Vodoun ceremonies include a literal sacrifice in which chickens, goats, doves, pigeons, and turtles are sacrificed to celebrate births, marriages, and deaths.

Vodou Beliefs about Afterlife

Practitioners of Vodou assume that the souls of all the deceased go to an abode beneath the waters. Concepts of reward and punishment in the afterlife are alien to Vodou.

In Vodou, the soul continues to live on earth and may be used in magic or it may be incarnated in a member of the dead person’s family.

Communion with a god or goddess occurs in the context of possession. The gods sometimes work through a govi, and sometimes take over a living person. This activity is referred to as “mounting a horse” during which the person loses consciousness and the body becomes temporarily possessed by a loa. A special priest (houngan) or priestess (mambo) assists both in summoning the divinities and in helping them to leave at the termination of the possession.

The gros-bon-ange returns to the high solar regions from which its cosmic energy was first drawn; there, it joins the other loa and becomes a loa itself.

Variations

Each group of worshipers is independent and there is no central organization, religious leader, or set of dogmatic beliefs. Rituals and ceremonies vary depending upon family traditions, regional differences, and exposure to the practices of other cultures such as Catholicism, which is the official religion of Haiti.

Some Haitians believe that the dead live in close proximity to the loa, in a place called “Under the Water.” Others hold that the dead have no special place after death.

Burial ceremonies vary according to local tradition and the status of the person. Some families do not express grief aloud until most of the deceased’s possessions have been removed from the home. Persons who are knowledgeable in the funeral customs wash, dress, and place the body in a coffin. Mourners wear white clothing which represents death. A priest may be summoned to conduct the burial service. The burial usually takes place within 24 hours.

Conclusion

Westerners, or so-called logical people, might find Vodoun a strange and exotic mixture of spells, possessions, and rituals. Like any other religion, its purpose is to comfort people by giving them a common bond. Vodoun meshes surprisingly well with Catholicism, the official religion of Haiti. With a supreme being, saint-like spirits, belief in the afterlife and invisible spirits, along with the protection of patron saints, Voodoo isn’t that different from traditional religions. 

Funeral Films: Grand Theft Parsons

This story is so extraordinary that if it did not really happen, no one would believe it. It involves two men, a hearse, a dead rock star, five gallons of gasoline, and a promise.

Remember the influential country rock musician Gram Parsons? He played with Emmylou Harris, The Byrds, The Flying Burrito Brothers, and The International Submarine Band. Parsons died in 1973 in a motel room near Joshua Tree National Monument from a morphine overdose at the age of 26.

The film Grand Theft Parsons (2003) is based on the true story of what happened to Parsons' body after he died. The movie illustrates certain issues that can be helpful for starting funeral or estate planning conversations.

Prior to his death, Parsons stated that he wanted his body cremated at Joshua Tree and his ashes spread over Cap Rock, a prominent natural feature there. His road manager Phil Kaufman (who also managed Parsons' drug and alcohol use as best he could) and he had a pact. Whoever died first, the other would take the body to Joshua Tree and "set his spirit free," that is, set the body on fire.

Taking a Body from a Hospital

At the beginning of the film, Kaufman (played by Johnny Knoxville) tries to obtain Parson's body from the small, remote hospital near Joshua Tree. The nurse says as he's not a physician or close relative, he has no rights to access the body. He tries to steal the body from the hospital, unsuccessfully.

Parsons' body goes to the Los Angeles International Airport for shipment to New Orleans for burial. Parsons' stepfather arranged for a private ceremony, neglecting to invite any music industry friends.

In the film, Kaufman hires a hippie with a psychedelic hearse to retrieve the body from the airport and bribes the air cargo office clerk to obtain Parson's body.

Once at Joshua Tree, Kaufman attempts to cremate Parsons by pouring five gallons of gasoline into the open coffin and throwing a lit cigarette inside – resulting in an intense fireball. That part of the film stays pretty close to the true story.

What Makes a Will?

The movie adds snarky ex-girlfriend Barbara Mansfield (played by Christina Applegate). She tries to cash in on Parson's money and earthly holdings using a handwritten note on the back of a flyer advertisement. She says it's his Will, but there is no notarization or anything that would make it official.

The note says: "To what it may concern: I would like it to be known that it is my wish to leave Barbara Mansfield my assets and belongings in the event of my death. Signed, Gram Parsons."

Kaufman tells her that's not a Will. She says it's a signed promise from Gram to leave her all of his things. Parsons was married to another woman at the time.

Using this note, she tries to obtain Parson's guitar and music masters from Kaufman. She also tries to get money from the bank. The banker tells her they have rules, the piece of paper is invalid, and they would at least need a death certificate for her to prove that he is actually dead. She unsuccessfully tries to get a death certificate from the county registrar.

Outside of the legality of setting a body on fire in a national monument, Grand Theft Parsons opens the door to discussing the following points:

  • A hand-written note does not make an acceptable Will, no matter how hard a desperate girlfriendists it does. Get an estate attorney who knows what actually makes a legal will valid.
  • Hospitals will not release bodies to "close friends," be they road managers or life partners without power-of-attorney proof. In fact, those who want to do their own home death care for a family member may have a difficult time getting a body released to next-of-kin.
  • Bribing an air cargo clerk has got to be breaking some kind of law, but this film is set in 1973, way before September 11 security improvements at airports took effect. Only "Known Shippers" can now handle dead bodies when it comes to air cargo. You can not just drive a psychedelic hearse up to the air cargo office anymore. Sigh.

By the way, in the true story, police chased Kaufman and his friend after setting the body on fire, but the pair got away. They were arrested several days later. Since there was no law against stealing a dead body, they were only fined $ 750 for stealing the coffin and were not prosecuted for leaving 35 pounds of Parsons' charred remains in the desert.

Grand Theft Parsons is a fun film with a few life-and-death lessons sprinkled into the comedy. It can be rented on DVD through Netflix and purchased on Amazon.com (as available). Rated PG-13 for drug references and some language.

NBA West – Wild, Wild, Wild

The NBA West is as competitive as it has ever been. .600 NBA teams could be out of the NBA Playoffs before even getting in. Some of the best players in the world stay in the NBA West, but only one team can explode through to play for an NBA Title.

The NBA West will be a huge mountain to scale for any NBA Team looking to go all the way. Whichever NBA team raises, they will have earned their trip to the NBA Finals through blood, sweat and a bit of luck. Whichever NBA West team wins, they will need to stay very healthy. Yao Ming Has already taken the Houston Rockets down with his injury.

On paper, there are several teams that look great. The New Orleans Hornets, Utah Jazz and Dallas Mavericks all look ready and willing to mix it up in the NBA Playoffs. If the NBA Playoffs have taught us anything, it is that experience and the best players usually survive to play deep into Spring. These three teams have yet to prove they have the chops to withstand the heat.

For me, it will come down to the big-three, the real big-three, in the NBA West. The Los Angeles Lakers have greeted and have come on very strong this season. Powered by Kobe Bryant's run for his first NBA MVP award, along with the addition of Pau Gasol, has the supercharged the Los Angeles Lakers near the top of the NBA West. Phil Jackson has done a masterful job at the helm, keeping egos in check, and having players buy into his system. All they have been doing is winning, and winning.

The San Antonio Spurs are the defending Champions. Like the Indianapolis Colts, who were defending champions in the NFL, all they do is go about their business, factory-like, and win as well. Tim Duncan again leads a pack that is looking to repeat for the first time in their dynamic, dynastic run.

Tony Parker will need to have a full strength if the San Antonio Spurs are primed to make a serious run at the NBA Title. Greg Popovich is, as usual, also doing a great job with the San Antonio Spurs. He is the most underrated, underappreciated Coach in all of sports, and will be destined for the hall-of-fame one day.

The Phoenix Suns, with the addition of Shaquille O'Neal, are in the hunt for the best record of the NBA West. Every NBA game is critical, as one loss can move a team down the standing several slots. The addition of Shaquille O'Neal has been the most intriguing move of the NBA Season, as the Phoenix Suns have gone all in, pushing all chips to the middle of the table in hopes of scoring an NBA Title, much like Shaquille O'Neal helped the Miami Heat and Pat Riley do in Miami.

The Phoenix Suns are old, and this is their window of opportunity. Steve Nash, Grant Hill and O'Neal are in the twilight of their careers, and this is the last go-round for all, with maybe this and 1-2 more years with the core group at NBA Championship capacity. The need will be for Shaquille O'Neal to stay healthy, and be able to give the Suns 25 great minutes per play game. This, maybe, can hold off Tim Duncan and the others.

It takes time for a presence like Shaquille O'Neal to mesh with Amare Stoudemire, Nash and company. Is there enough time? Probably, provided the health of Shaq contains.

Right now, it looks like the threesome of the San Antonio Spurs, Phoenix Suns and Los Angeles Lakers have the best shot of breaking out of the NBA West. If another team from the NBA West breaks through to the NBA Western Conference Finals I would be surprised. I still have to go with my pick back in November, the San Antonio Spurs to break through the NBA West and beat the Boston Celtics in the NBA Finals, in 6 tough games.

Crime in America – The Most Dangerous Cities and States

According to the most recently compiled crime reports and analyzed statistics (based on 2008 records), the three most dangerous cities in America are not particularly surprising.

New Orleans, Louisiana. There is little wonder that this city takes the number one most-dangerous spot, considering the social upheaval that ensued after Hurricane Katrina. Still in the lengthy throws of recovery, it's illegally that crime stats will drop any time soon in this devastated urban environment.

Detroit, Michigan. Poverty has overwhelmed Detroit following the closure of so many auto industry plants and other related businesses that were for so long the center of the area's economy. Desperation has a way of making people turn on each other. Violent crime, especially rape, armed robbery and assaults were through the roof in '08.

Gary, Indiana. Gary's drop to the number three spot is something of an accomplishment. They held the infamous number one spot for several years running. Burglary has always been high in this Indiana town, but rape statistics are especially ridiculous. I'd surmise that it would be unwince for any woman to walk down the streets of Gary without a loaded gun, a body guard, locked chastity belt and a pack of wolf hybrids.

The rest of the top ten most dangerous cities are: North Charleston South Carolina, Richmond California, Birmingham Alabama, Flint Michigan, Oakland California – which has been in the top three on numerous occasions, St.. Louis Missouri, and Camden New Jersey.

The three most unsafe states include Louisiana at the top of the list. While New Orleans was named the most dangerous city in the US, there are other Louisiana locales that do not beckon visitors with any promise of security. No doubt Louisiana tourism will not be on the rise anytime soon.

Nevada comes in second to Louisiana, though a distant second. Some of the smaller out of the way towns are not too seedy, but Las Vegas is always a hotbed of crime. Reno has its fair share of trouble as well. The state, with legal gambling and prostitution, is pretty much begging for an unsavory culture.

South Carolina takes the number three spot of the most dangerous states in the country, due to its very high number of reported attacks and car thefts. Other recorded crimes, however, are relatively low in comparison to other states in the top ten, which include; New Mexico, Florida, Tennessee, Alaska, Arizona, Michigan and Maryland.

No matter where you live, whether it's one of the most at-risk cities or a small, quiet town, it's always important to be aware of who and what is around you. Use common sense when going out (is it really necessary to be outside at 1:00 in the morning?) And when at home, always lock up your doors and windows.

Installing a reliable home security system can help keep you safe, and monitoring services elevate your personal protection even further. Crime can happen anywhere, anytime. Preparation and awareness can be key weapons to keep you from becoming a victim.

Using Conference Calling to Plan a School Carnival

School carnivals are a great way to raise money for your school but planning one takes a significant amount of time, energy, and cooperation. You will want to offer a variety of games, events, and food so that you can attract a larger crowd and raise more money. And you will want to take certain factors into consideration when making choices for your school carnival such as the season, the age categories of reasonably attendees, and cost.

Taking care of all the responsibilities yourself will likely be too much, especially if you want your school carnival to really be successful. In addition to seeking help from other parents and staff members you should follow a planning schedule in order to complete tasks efficiently and timely. Three simple suggestions will help you to get started in planning a great school carnival.

Determine Games, Events, and Food – Obviously one of the most important parts of your planning for your school carnival will be determining what games and events you will have and what food you will serve. You will want to choose a wide variety of age appropriate games and events and be sure that you have something there for the adults to enjoy as well.

The foods you choose should be simple enough to prepare for students to be able to offer a helping hand since you are throwing a school carnival. You can find some ideas online or ask for suggestions from students, parents, and faculty.

Organize Responsibilities – After planning games, events, and food it is time to start organizing responsibilities. One way to do this is to provide a sign-up sheet both for at school and one to send home to parents in case some parents would like to contribute by volunteering at the carnival.

Be sure when you are doing this though that you put every little job on the list and double check to make sure you did not miss anything. You do not want to reach the day of the carnival with unassigned duties and nobody to fulfill them. It may be a good idea to even schedule a couple of call on people just in cases any contingencies arise.

Hold a Last Minute Conference Call – To be sure that everything is in order you should schedule a conference call with all of your helpers for the night before the carnival. Touching base with everyone simultaneously is easy with conferencing and is the best way to confirm that everyone and everything is ready for your school carnival.

Right from the beginning of the planning stages you should begin looking for a free conference calling program online so that you can have it downloaded and ready when you need it. You may even find conference calling useful during the planning stages as well. There are so many benefits that conferencing can provide for individuals planning events such as a school carnival so be sure to make use of this useful tool.

A lot of work will have to go into planning a great school carnival but it will be worth it in the end when you see how much money can be raised. Be sure to plan ahead and utilize conferencing and everything should go off without a hitch on the day of the carnival.

International Sports Drama

What a week in sports. At some point someone came up with the idea to call this week rivalry week and it really seemed to fit knowing all of the games that took place this week. Of all the games that took place this week the one with the most international meaning was probably the soccer game that took place between the United States and Mexico.

This is a bitter rivalry that has been built up over the years into a major event for both sides and always proves to be a great showing. The last 10 meetings between the teams have been good for the United States with them coming out on top 9 of those times and a tie once. The other night was a major game for both teams, especially the US since many of there players are technically not in season. However, both teams came to play and the match actually ended in a 2-2 tie.

The meaning of an international rivalry in sports is so important. It can affect everything from international politics to the day to day to relations of the countries citizens. This played out last night on the pitch as both teams battled not only for their personal supremacy but a few months of international soccer supremacy.

It is also interesting because so many Mexicans love game but thanks to events such as last night that seemed to build the hype around soccer Americans seem to be gaining sincere interest in the drama of the game. Unfortunately soccer sometimes ends in a tie and we will have to wait until the next meeting to see which team will gain international supremacy.

Renaissance and Neoclassical Historical Arts

Renaissance is a cultural movement that started in Europe during the early 14th to 17th century or a period between the Classical and Modern era. More than its cultural essence, the Renaissance period was known for its developments in art, painting, philosophy, architecture and other intellectual aspects. It was an era that witnessed the largest growth and development in Western Europe.

A1. Renaissance art took its shape from the social conditions that existed at that time that carved Europe's political structure. The cultural rarity of Italy exists, as there was no political form during the early modern period that rendered in artistic and academic advances. This freedom opened gateways to trade and commerce across the globe that welcomed wealth in Italy through commissioning its artistic work.

Renaissance artists looked for human emotions and realism in art. They focused on making human portraits with a natural background. They took the Humanism approach, placing more emphasis on man than god, which was reflected in their sculptures and paintings. The Early Renaissance period focused more on creating sculptures on the basis of personality and behavior, whereas the High Renaissance was more towards balance and drama. Renaissance artists were greatly inspired by Roman and Greek art that used nude human bodies of personality in their art. Their attempt to gain perfection in human arts for expression, personality, and emotions reduced social hierarchies in the status of people resulting in everyone wanting to learn and share their ideas and skills.

A2. Neoclassicism was a predominant movement during the mid 18th century and the late 19th century in European art and architecture. It focused on the western classical art forms of ancient Greece and Rome. It was part of a movement that had initiated as a reaction to the Baroque and Rococo styles. It became a predominant part of academic art that continued into the 19th century to become visible as museums of neoclassical architecture.

Neoclassical art aimed at reviving the European Age of Enlightenment that was the Greek and Roman classical art forms. It aimed to contain the 'purity' of Roman arts and criticized Baroque and Rococo styles. Neoclassicism gained importance in France and England spreading towards Sweden. It made use of the classical essence relating to courage and nationalism.

Neoclassicism aimed to resurge classical styles through use of sharp colors and classical subjects. They avoided light and soft colors in their paintings that depressed calmness and grandeur. Neoclassicians revived the Greek painting styles by using mosaics, columns, engravings and other ornamental elements in their work.

A3. Renaissance signified the rebirth of arts, science, and medicine and was an era that was responsible for most radical developments and movements in Europe. So much so, that it is also used to describe other major cultural and historical moments. Classical Renaissance wave birth to the Baroque style that was more dramatic and direct. Therefore Neoclassicism was nothing but a reaction to the Baroque style so as to preserve the purity of ancient Roman arts. Moreover, neoclassicism remained one of the earliest in academic arts.

A3a.

  • Renaissance period was known for its Humanist approach in art while neoclassical art focused on more classical and pure elements of style;
  • The Renaissance period thought about radical developments in arts, philosophy, and medicine while neoclassical art was foreseen in academic arts;
  • Renaissance artists believed in more natural and expressive nude sculptures of art while neoclassical artists incorporated ornamental elements in their work;
  • The Renaissance period opened Gateways to new ideas and developments, while the neoclassicism period focused on retaining the Age of Enlightenment.

A3b. The Renaissance era was one of the most influential and flourishing period during the 15th and 16th centuries and wave birth to major cultural developments for nearly three centuries. Renaissance art was born out of an evolving civilization which quest for realism and scientific perfection directed in some of the greatest works and achievement in arts, science, architecture, and philosophy. The distinguishing feature of Renaissance art is its dedication to classical arts with a renovated interest in Roman styles that included naked human sculptures with no landscapes in a natural environment. It was an important era that brought wealth to Europe and its artistic freedom enabled skilled artisans to flourish.

A3b1. Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) was one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance period. Also known as the 'Renaissance Man', was born in Italy and was a renown painter who became a polymath in many fields such as music, science, mathematics, and botany. He is considered as one of the greatest diversely talented persons to have lived. Mona Lisa is one of the most restructured works of his time that was greatly appreciated. The Mona Lisa is a 16th century half-length portrait that was made in oil and of a seated woman.

Andrea Appiani (1754-1817) Born in Milan, was an Italian neoclassical painter. He trained under Carlo Maria Giudici and learnt painting by copying sculptures. His best works are in the church of San Maria presso San Celso and the royal palace at Milan. Some of his works of oil paintings are Venus and Love, and Rinaldo in the garden of Armida.

A3b2. Madame Hamelin (1776-1851) was one of the neoclassical painter Andrea Appiani's work that bears a similar resemblance to Leonardo Da Vinci's Monal Lisa. Both are half-length oil portraits of women who are half-imprisoned that reflects the natural facial expressions wherein their hands are folders bearing similar artistic values ​​and styles to one another.

A3c. Neoclassicism reached its most influential period in arts during the 1780s to 1850s. New archaeological discoveries and settings paved the way for classical themes that also resulted from the reaction of the Rococo styles. Neoclassicism retained its classic antiquity and co-existed with its much opposite form of Romanticism art. Artists of the neoclassical era replaced religious and mythological objects with realistic, simple, and bold ones. IN the 1830s, the Neoclassicism era was replaced by Romanticism.

Miami Cheap Flights and Hotel Bundles

If you are planning a flight to Miami, you can score a cheap Miami flight by purchasing a Miami vacation package. More and more travelers are learning to save by taking care of the costs of their airfare, hotel accommodations and more when purchasing a flight and hotel bundle from any of the number of reputable travel companies that offer these types of deals. You can find your choice of flights and type of flight, whether you prefer to ride in economy or first class, along with five star lodgings once you hit the ground in Miami. What’s more, many of these package deals also include a rental car for your time in Miami, provided by the best rental car companies on the market – and many will include tickets to your favorite Miami attractions and meal vouchers to dine at your hotel or other Miami eateries. Let’s look at some of the best Miami hotels that you might want to consider when booking a flight and hotel bundle.

The Angler’s Boutique Resort is growing in popularity and is consistently named as a top hotel in Miami. Although there’s not the quantity of rooms at this popular resort as you will see with some of the more famous ones in the area (there’s just 49), you will find that no amenity is spared at the Angler’s Boutique Resort, and the service is second-to-none. Big, warm rooms or three story villas with spiral staircases and showers on the roof – the choice is yours. An onsite restaurant offers tastes of the Mediterranean (aptly named, 660 Mediterranean Kitchen) for guests who also have the option of eating their dinner poolside in a cabana.

Another little known luxury hotel in Miami that you might consider for a flight and hotel bundle package is the Betsy South Beach, which is formerly known as the Betsy Ross. Located on Ocean Drive in Miami, the Betsy is a colonial styled hotel with a tropical feel that is home to a by-invitation-only lounge. Sixty-three elegantly appointed rooms keep the Betsy intimate in both size and vibe. Sleep in luxury in a huge four poster bed or watch the game on a huge LCD television or grab an unobstructed view of the mighty Atlantic from your hotel window. The Betsy also boasts a rooftop solarium, spa and pool, and the beach at the Betsy is attended by beach butlers who are ready to serve you breakfast in the sand.

The legendary Eden Rock Resort is a Miami staple, and has just undergone a multimillion dollar renovation that included the addition of two new restaurants, a twenty-one story tower that houses two hundred and eighty two rooms, and fourteen two level bungalow suites that are maxed out with amenities. Look for the new spa and fitness center at the Eden Rock to become a favorite among guests. The Eden Rock Resort is a bit pricier than many accommodations in Miami, but if you can swing it – the cost is well worth it for the top notch service and impeccable beauty that will surround you during your stay.

Fontainebleau is another Miami hotel that has received a costly high-dollar facelift in the past couple of years – which is why it is becoming the hub in Miami when it comes to hosting conventions. But the average traveler will also appreciate the Fontainebleau with its lavish décor, abundant chandeliers and checkerboard marble floors. The Fontainebleau is most known in Miami as the hang out for eighties Rat Packers, and is also home to a massive nightclub and a poolside sushi lounge. Book early if you want to stay at the Fontainebleau – most of its 1,504 rooms and suites are at capacity much of the time.

These are just a few of the choices that you might run across when booking a cheap Miami flight and hotel bundled deal; there are many more. In fact, Miami has hotels for every budget – from airport hotels and discount hotels to $1,000 a night establishments that cater to your every whim.

Tulane University History

The history of Tulane University is a particularly unique one when compared to the stories of universities of a similar age.

The private college located in New Orleans, Louisiana is known today as Tulane began with meager beginnings as the Medical College of Louisiana in 1834. Interestingly, modern day Tulane University owes its existence to a fear of yellow fever and smallpox – two diseases largely considered to be eradicated in the modern Western World. It was fear of outbreaks, particularly of the diseases just mentioned, that inspired New Orleans residents to open what was at the time only the second medical school located in the South.

In 1847 the school expanded its curriculum and officially became The University of Louisiana with a law school being added four years later. While some devote Tulane fans and alumni know that the school was established in 1834 fewer realize that the school has not run continuously since that time. The then titled University of Louisiana closed its doors during the civil war from April 1861 through April 1865, as did numerous schools during the time. Following the civil war the school faced a smorgasbord of financial issues that culminated with an agricultural crisis that was due in no small part to inclement weather. At the time of the school's most dire financial hardship Paul Tulane was a man that successfully owned both a clothing and dry goods business. Mr. Tulane's successful business endeavors equaled him the ability to donate sizable amounts of real estate to the ailing university.

It would not be until half a century after the school was established that in 1884 pledges from Paul Tulane would allow the university to become privatized. It was at the time of the privatization that the name was basically changed from The University of Louisiana to Tulane University. To this day Tulane remains as the only instance in American history of a university shifting from a state sponsored public institution to a private college.

While numerous milestones were reached during the twentieth century none compared to the devastating effects that Hurricane Katrina had on the community in the early part of the twenty first century. In August, 2005 Hurricane Katrina forever imputed the New Orleans landscape and Tulane University was no exception. In trying times character is revealed and one notable positive effect of the catastrophe is that Tulane became the first high research institution to mandate that a public service fulfillment would be a prerequisite to completing an undergraduate degree.

While no one can predict the future with absolute certy it seems safe to say that considering Tulane University's history of overcoming adversity, future prosperity is all but a sure thing.